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Monteregian Federation
Fédération MonteregiènneFR
Screen Shot 2014-01-10 at 3.52.03 AM.png
 
England.png
5 March 1873–Present
MonteregisFlag.png MonteregisEmblem.png
Flag Coat of arms
Devise
Je Me Souviens
Hymne
Mon Beau Pays
MonteregisMap.png
Location of Monteregis
Capitale Montreal
Languages French, English
Religion Secular
Government Federal Constitutional Semi-Presidential Republic
President
 -  President Jean-Jacques Gauguin
 - Prime Minister Xavier Laporte
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Delegates
History
 - Union between Laurentes and Novanglia 5 March 1873
Area
 -  2016 estimate 692 227 km² Modèle:Nowrap
Population
 -  2016 estimate est. 31 816 000 
Modèle:NbspDensity 46 /km²  (119 /sq mi)
Currency Selor (SLR)
Internet TLD .mr
Calling code +12


Monteregis (/WIP/ MONT ih REE gis; French: /'monte'røzhi/ MON te REU ji), officially the Monteregian Federation is a sovereign state in North America. Monteregis covers an area of around 692,227 km2 (267,270 sq. mi.) and has a continental climate. As of the 2016 estimate, the population of Monteregis is 31,816,000.

Monteregis has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French claims were made on the area, with the colony of Laurentes first being established by the French in 1537 and New England by the British in 1620. Pursuant to the Franco-British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, the colonies of Laurentes and Novanglia were granted independence as a semi-autonomous dominion of France and the United Kingdom, respectably. Six years later, they united into Monteregis, but they were still a dominion of France and the United Kingdom.

In 1931, Monteregis achieved near total independence from France and the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster 1931 and Nanterre 1932, and full sovereignty was attained when the Monteregis Act 1982 removed the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliaments of France and the United Kingdom. Monteregis is a federal parliamentary democracy and a semi-presidential constitutional republic, with Jean-Jacques Gauguin being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the twentieth largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Monteregis' long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

Monteregis is a developed country and has the sixteenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Monteregis is a member of the Francophonie and Anglophone Nations and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G8, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Triple Federal Alliance.

History Modifier

Aboriginals and colonization Modifier

Aboriginal peoples in present-day Monteregis include the First Nations, which are a group of many different tribes. These tribes travelled to North America during the Ice Age through the Bering land bridge between Siberia and Alaska. They lived peacefully for thousands of years, and their numbers are estimated to be as much as 2 million, but as the Europeans came, they began to die off because the Europeans brought disease to which the Aboriginals were not immune to.

France began to colonize North America, and by the end of the sixteenth century, they had settled the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River. There were three colonies in those areas: Laurentes, Nouvelle France, and Louisiane. At the turn of the seventeenth century, England colonized the area west of Louisiane, except for a small Dutch settlement in Rhode Island and Connecticut.

Independence and unification Modifier

In 1867, Laurentes, Novanglia, and Hofmaas all gained independence on the same day. Laurentes was in the St. Lawrence and Ottawa River valleys, New Brunswick, New Scotland, and disputably Prince Edward Island, while Novanglia was in New England and New York, and Hofmaas was in Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Long Island. Two months later, Hofmaas ceded Rhode Island to Novanglia.

in 1873, both nations decided to unite despite their contrasting demographic makeups. The Unification Act of 1873 was signed by prime ministers Paul Grange and Thomas Paddock in Havenecht (Hofmaas). Thus, Monteregis was born.

20th century Modifier

Because Britain and France still maintained control of Monteregis' foreign affairs under the Confederation Act, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Monteregis into World War I. Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Monteregian Corps. Out of approximately 325,000 Monteregians who served in World War I, some 30,000 were killed and another 152,000 were wounded. In 1919, Monteregis joined the League of Nations independently of Britain or France, and the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Monteregis' independence under the British crown, while the Statute of Nanterre 1932 affirmed total independence from France.

The first Monteregian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. In all, over a million Monteregians served in the armed forces during World War II and approximately 42,000 were killed and another 55,000 were wounded. Monteregian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. Due to their relationship with Hofmaas, Monteregis provided asylum with many benefits for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany.

Modern times Modifier

Today, Monteregis is a highly developed country. There are many national parks and laws that protect the nature, the biggest and most notable ones being in the Appalachian National Park Collectivity. Monteregis is a founder of the East American Trade Organization and American Nations United, and a member of UN, NATO, NAFTA, and TFA. It has a blossoming GDP, HDI, and has the world's twenty-fourth largest economy. Monteregis has the fifth largest population density in the world at 46 pop./km2, tied with Panama and Belarus.

Geography Modifier

Modèle:Multiple images Monteregis' long rolling hills, mountains, and jagged coastline are glacial landforms resulting from the retreat of ice sheets approximately 18,000 years ago, during the last glacial period.

Monteregis is geologically a part of the Monteregis province, an exotic terrane region consisting of the Appalachian Mountains, the Monteregis highlands, and the seaboard lowlands. The Appalachian Mountains roughly follow the border between Monteregis and Pennsylvania. The Berkshires in Massachusetts, and the Green Mountains in Vermont, as well as the Taconic Mountains, form a spine of Precambrian rock.

The Appalachians extend northwards into New Hampshire as the White Mountains, and then into Maine and Quebec. Mount Washington in New Hampshire is the highest peak in Monteregis. It is the site of the second highest recorded wind speed on Earth, and has the reputation of having the world's most severe weather.

The coast of the country, extending from southern Rhode Island to central Quebec, is dotted with lakes, hills, marshes and wetlands, and sandy beaches. Important valleys in the region include the Connecticut River Valley and the Saint Lawrence River Valley. The longest river is the Saint Lawrence River, which flows through Quebec for 1,197 km (744 mi), emptying into Atlantic Ocean, roughly bisecting the region. Lake Champlain, wedged between Vermont and New York, is the largest lake in the region, followed by Moosehead Lake in Maine and Lake Winnipesaukee in New Hampshire.

Climate Modifier

Monteregis has a humid continental climate (Dfb in Köppen climate classification). In this region the winters are long, cold, and heavy snow is common (most locations receive 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 mm) of snow annually in this region). The summer's months are moderately warm, though summer is rather short and rainfall is spread through the year.

Government and Politics Modifier

The Monteregian Federation is a federal semi-presidential republic with strong democratic traditions. The constitution of the Monteregian Federation was approved by referendum on 5 March 1874. It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic, currently Jean-Jacques Gauguin, who is head of state and is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 4-year term (formerly 5 years), and the Government, led by the president-appointed Prime Minister, currently Xavier Laporte.

The Monteregian parliament is a bicameral legislature comprising a House of Delegates and a Senate. The House of Delegates deputies represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 3-year terms. The House has the power to dismiss the government, and thus the majority in the House determines the choice of government. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms), and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September 2008.

The House of Delegates' legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the Senate has the final say. The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament.

Monteregian politics are characterised by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred on the Monteregian Democratic Socialist Party, and the other right-wing, centred previously around the Liberal Front, then its successor the Union for the Centrist Fronts (UCF), which in 2015 was renamed Les Centristes. Since the 2012 elections, the executive branch is currently composed mostly of the Democratic Socialist Party.

Administrative Divisions Modifier

Name Capital Population Area (km2)
30px-Flag_of_Quebec.svg.png Quebec Montreal (Capital)
30px-Flag_of_New_York.svg.png New York Buffalo
30px-Flag_of_Vermont.svg.png Vermont Burlington
30px-Flag_of_New_Hampshire.svg.png New Hampshire Manchester
30px-Flag_of_Massachusetts.svg.png Massachusetts Boston
30px-Flag_of_Rhode_Island.svg.png Rhode Island Providence
30px-Flag_of_Maine.svg.png Maine Portland
30px-Flag_of_New_Brunswick.svg.png New Brunswick St. John
30px-Flag_of_Nova_Scotia.svg.png New Scotland Halifax
30px-Flag_of_Prince_Edward_Island.svg.png Prince Edward Island* Charlottetown

Modèle:* Prince Edward Island (PEI) is currently administered by Monteregis but disputed with France

Foreign Relations Modifier

Monteregis has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. It is a member of the G7, G20, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Many countries have embassies in Montreal, and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host Monteregian diplomatic missions. However, Iran and North Korea do not have formal diplomatic relations with Monteregis.

Monteregis has a "Special Relationship" with the United Kingdom and France and strong ties with Nunavut, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Japan, South Korea, Israel, and several European Union countries, including France, Italy, Germany, and Spain. It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement with all other countries in North America. In 2008, Monteregis spent a net $5.2 billion on official development assistance, the most in the world. As a share of Monteregis' large gross national income (GNI), however, the Monteregian contribution of 0.09% ranked last among 22 donor states. By contrast, private overseas giving by Monteregians is relatively generous.

The most important international organisation that Monteregis is part of is the Triple Federal Alliance, which is made up of Monteregis, the United Great Lakes, and Guyana. Monteregis maintains close ties with all neighboring nations, especially the United Great Lakes.

Name Signed Type
Triple Federal Alliance 3rd October 2016 Economic & Military
Nation Signed Treaty Type
30pxUnited Great Lakes 7th October 2016 Treaty of Toronto Economic, Military, and Trade
30pxAdianterras 7th October 2016 Treaty of Hurkaj Economic, Military, and Trade
30pxHelvetic-Bavarian Commonwealth 7th October 2016 Treaty of Zurich Economic, Military, and Trade
30pxInkami 7th October 2016 Treaty of Lviv Economic, Military, and Trade

Economy Modifier

Transport Modifier

Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a large network of public roads, including the start of one of America's longest highways, the East Coast International Highway at 3,089.52 km (1,919.74 mi). Monteregis hosts 293 vehicles per 1,000 Monteregians. About 30% of personal vehicles are SUVs, vans, or sedans. The average Monteregian adult (accounting for all drivers and non-drivers) spends 55 minutes driving every day, traveling 29 miles (47 km).

Mass transit accounts for 12% of total Monteregian work trips. Transport of goods by rail is extensive, though relatively low numbers of passengers (approximately 12,000 annually) use intercity rail to travel, partly because of the high population density and the fact that the cities are closely packed together. However, ridership on RailRegis, the national intercity passenger rail system, grew by almost 35% between 2000 and 2010. Also, light rail development has increased in recent years. Bicycle usage for work commutes is minimal.

The Monteregian power transmission grid consists of about 13,292 km (9,255 mi) of lines operated by approximately 50 companies. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NAERC) oversees all of them. The civil airline industry is entirely government-owned, while most major airports are publicly owned. Montera is the number one Monteregian airline, and it is owned by the governnment. Of the world's 30 busiest passenger airports, one of them is in Monteregis, including 19th busiest, Boston Logan International Airport, and the 35th busiest, Montréal-Laval Intercontinental Airport.

Science and Technology Modifier

In 2012, Monteregis spent approximately M$17.3 billion on domestic research and development, of which around M$7 billion was provided by the federal and state governments. As of 2015, the country has produced nine Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine, and was ranked fifth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists. It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms. Monteregis has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 29 million users, equivalent to around 96 percent of its total 2014 population.

The Monteregian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. Monteregis was the seventh country to launch a satellite into space, with the 1983 Alouette 1 launch. In 1984, Marc Garneau became Monteregis' first male astronaut. Monteregis is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Monteregarm, Monteregarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle. Since the 1960s, Monteregis' aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST. Monteregis has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961.

Demographics Modifier

As of 2016, Monteregis has and estimate of 31,816,000 inhabitants. The resulting population density, at 46 inhabitants per square kilometre (119 per sq. mi), is below Panama and above Belarus. However, the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely populated areas are the Saint Lawrence River and coast, while vast regions such as the Green Mountains are sparsely populated. Modèle:Largest cities

Ethnicity Modifier

According to the 2010 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Monteregian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by French (21%), English (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Italian (13.9%), Irish (10.2%), Czech (4.6%), Korean (4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Estonian (3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%). There are 50 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 193,790 people. Monteregis' Aboriginal population is growing at almost half the national rate, and three percent of Monteregis' population claimed Aboriginal identity in 2010. Another 16.2 percent of the population belonged to a non-Aboriginal visible minority. In 2010, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (4.0%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black (2.5%). Between 2000 and 2010, the visible minority population rose by 27.2 percent. In 1961, less than two percent of Monteregis' population (about 200,000 people) were members of visible minority groups. By 2007, almost one in five (19.8%) were foreign-born, with nearly 60 percent of new immigrants coming from Asia (including the Middle East). The leading sources of immigrants to Canada were Korea, the Philippines and Vietnam. According to Statistics Monteregis, visible minority groups could account for a third of the Monteregian population by 2031.

Language Modifier

A multitude of languages are used by Monteregians, with French and English (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 60% and 30% of Canadians respectively. Nearly 5.9 million Monteregians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,072,555 first-language speakers), Punjabi (430,705), Spanish (410,670), German (409,200), and Italian (407,490). Monteregis' federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages in consonance with Section 16 of the Monteregian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Federal Official Languages Act English and French have equal status in federal courts, parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.

Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Maine, and New Scotland. New Brunswick has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 30 percent of the population. There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern New Scotland, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.

Additionally, Monteregis is home to many sign languages, two of which are Indigenous. American Sign Language (ASL), is spoken across the country due to the prevalence of ASL in primary and secondary schools. Quebec Sign Language (LSQ), is spoken primarily in Quebec, however there are sizeable population centres in francophone communities in New Brunswick, New Scotland, and Maine; due to its historical relation to the francophone culture. Maritime Sign Language was used in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island before ASL became available in the mid-20th century.

Religion Modifier

The Monteregian Constitution states that Monteregis is a secular state, and that it does not force any religion on someone. Non-religion is by far the most popular religion in Monteregis where 61.3% of the population has no religion affiliation. In a 2013 survey, only 23% of Monteregians said that religion played a "very important role in their lives", a far lower figure than that of any other developed nation. In a 2009 poll, 29% of Monteregians said that they attended church weekly or almost weekly; the figures ranged from a low of 10% in Prince Edward Island to a high of 63% in Massachusetts.

As with other Western countries, Monteregis is becoming less religious. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Monteregians under 30. Polls show that overall Monteregian confidence in organized religion has been declining since the mid to late 1970s, and that younger Monteregian in particular are becoming increasingly irreligious. According to a 2012 study, Catholic share of Monteregian population dropped to 20%, thus close to ending its status as religious category of the majority for the first time. Monteregian with no religion have 1.9 children compared to 2.2 among Christians. The unaffiliated are less likely to get married with 37% marrying compared to 52% of Christians.

Education Modifier

Monteregian public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the Monteregis Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. Children are required to attend school from the age of six until they turn 18. The grade levels are E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, J1, J2, J3, S1, S2, S3, and S4.

About 25% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. Just under 3% of children are homeschooled. Monteregis spends the eighth most on education in the world, spending more than $10,525 per elementary student in 2010 and more than $11,250 per senior student. Some 75% of Monteregian college students attend public universities.

Monteregis has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education. There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition. Of Monteregians 25 and older, 87.9% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 11.4% earned graduate degrees. The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%. The Global Assembly assigns Monteregis an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world.

Many prestigious universities lie within Monteregis, including Harvard, Cornell, M.I.T., Dartmouth, Brown, and McGill. The Boston area is regarded as a "university city", as over 50 colleges are located there. As for public expenditures on higher education, Monteregis trails some other OECD nations but spends more per student than the OECD average. As of 2020, student loan debt exceeded ten billion dollars.

Health Modifier

Historically, Monteregis has ranked high in numbers of medical personnel and has made significant contributions to world health since the 19th century. Today, Monteregis has universal health care and there is no shortage of medical personnel. Primary care is available throughout the nation and infant and maternal mortality rates compare favorably with those in leading nations.

Monteregis as a monarchy initially experienced an overall worsening in terms of disease and infant mortality rates when half its 6,000 doctors left the country. Recovery occurred by the 1950's and the country's healthcare has been widely praised. The government asserted that universal health care was to become a priority of state planning and progress was made in rural areas. Monteregis has the highest doctor-to-population ratio in the world and has sent thousands of doctors to more than 60 countries around the world. According to the World Health Organization, Monteregis is "known the world over for its ability to train excellent doctors and nurses who can then go out to help other countries in need". As of September 2014 there are around 80,000 Monteregian-trained health care workers aiding 60 nations. Monteregis physicians have played a leading role in combating the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa.

According to the GA, Monteregis has a life expectancy of 83.0 years at birth, up from 77.6 years in 2000. This ranks Monteregis 4th in the world and first in the Americas, ahead of Canada. Infant mortality in Monteregis declined from 10 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 1965, to just 4 in 2010.

In 2015, Monteregis became the first country to eradicate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis, a milestone hailed by the World Health Organization as "one of the greatest public health achievements possible".

Culture Modifier

Monteregis' culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a "just society" are constitutionally protected. Monteregis has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all its people. Multiculturalism is often cited as one of Monteregis' significant accomplishments, and a key distinguishing element of Monteregian identity.

Monteregis' approach to governance emphasizing multiculturalism, which is based on selective immigration, social integration, and suppression of far right politics, has wide public support. Government policies such as publicly funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, strict gun control, and the legalization of same-sex marriage are further social indicators of Monteregis' political and cultural values. Monteregians also identify with the country's health care institutions, peacekeeping, the National park system and the Monteregian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Literature Modifier

Monteregian literature is often divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively. There are four major themes that can be found within historical Monteregian literature; nature, frontier life, Monteregis' position within the world, all three of which tie into the garrison mentality. By the 1990s, Monteregian literature was viewed as some of the world's best. Monteregis' ethnic and cultural diversity are reflected in its literature, with many of its most prominent modern writers focusing on ethnic life. Arguably, the best-known living Monteregian writer internationally (especially since the deaths of Robertson Davies and Mordecai Richler) is Margaret Atwood, a prolific novelist, poet, and literary critic. Numerous other Monteregian authors have accumulated international literary awards; including Nobel Laureate Alice Munro, who has been called the best living writer of short stories in English; and Booker Prize recipient Michael Ondaatje, who is perhaps best known for the novel The English Patient, which was adapted as a film of the same name that won the Academy Award for Best Picture.

Visual Arts Modifier

Monteregian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson – the country's most famous painter – and by the Group of Seven. Thomson's career painting Monteregian landscapes spanned a decade up to his death in 1917 at age 39. The Group were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists—Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley—were responsible for articulating the Group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the Group in 1926. Associated with the Group was another prominent Monteregian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the Indigenous peoples of the Atlantic Northest coast. Since the 1950s, works of Acadian art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Monteregian government.

Music Modifier

The Monteregian music industry is the sixth largest in the world producing internationally renowned composers, musicians and ensembles. Music broadcasting in the country is regulated by the MRTC. The Monteregian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Monteregis' music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970. The Monteregian Music Hall of Fame established in 1976 honours Monteregian musicians for their lifetime achievements. Patriotic music in Monteregis dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to independence by over 50 years. The earliest, The Bold Monteregian, was written in 1812. The national anthem of Monteregis, "Mon Beau Pays", was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980. Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French, before it was translated to English in 1906.

Media Modifier

The biggest broadcaster in Monteregis is Monteregis Communications & Broadcasting Corporation (Corporation Monteregien de Communications et Diffusion), and it is a state-owned commercial entity. Cable television offers about 20 of channels catering to a variety of niches. Monteregians listen to radio programming, also largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day. Well-known newspapers are Montreal Times and St. Lawrence Herald. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage. With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in Monteregis are privately owned, either by large chains, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily papers. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups. Early versions of the Monteregian newspaper comic strip and the Monteregian comic book began appearing in the 19th century. In 1938, Superman, the comic book superhero of DC Comics, developed into a Monteregian icon. Aside from web portals and search engines, the most popular websites are Instagram, YouTube, Wikipedia, Amazon and Twitter.

Sports Modifier

The roots of organized sports in Monteregis date back to the 1770s. Monteregis' official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse. Seven of Monteregis' eight largest metropolitan areas – Montreal, Quebec City, Ottawa, Boston, Buffalo, Rochester, Providence, and Worcester – have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL) while Springfield had the Springfield Squirrels until they relocated to Hofmaas in 1995. Monteregis does have one Major League Baseball team, the Boston Red Sox, one professional basketball team, the Boston Celtics, three Major League Soccer teams and four National Lacrosse League teams. Monteregis has participated in almost every Olympic Games since its Olympic debut in 1930, and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Albany, the 1994 Basketball World Championship, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. Other popular and professional spectator sports in Monteregis include curling, Monteregian football and rugby league; the latter is played professionally in the Monteregian Football League (CFL) and League 1 (Boston Wolfpack). Golf, tennis, baseball, skiing, cricket, volleyball, rugby union, Australian Rules Football, soccer and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels, but professional leagues and franchises are not widespread.

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